Walnut

Iranian walnut kernel is divided into three grades according to the size, fat content, color, and halves.
The nutritional value of walnuts
100 grams of walnut kernels contains about 650 calories and is composed of 64% fat, 16% carbohydrates, and 14%protein.

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Walnuts are the fruit of the Jungians regain. It is a Latin contraction of Jives glens meaning regal nut of Jupiter or nut of “the Gods.”

Ancients believed the gods dined on walnuts, hence regain or regal.
Origin of the term walnut has debatable origins. Some scholars say the term derives from the Teutonic German wellness or Welch muss and others from the Anglo-Saxon word wealh meaning foreign or alien and hunt meaning nut.

It’s difficult to trace the native home of the walnut tree, but ancient Romans believe it originated in Persia. Early cultivation spanned from southeastern Europe to Asia Minor to the Himalayas.

Greek usage of walnut oil dates back to the fourth century B.C., nearly a century before the Romans. Franciscan priests brought the walnut to California, the USA around 1770. The oil of the nut has been used for centuries in the preparation of fine paints for artists.
In ancient Persia, where their cultivation may have originated, walnuts were the food of royalty. The “Persian” walnut became known as the “English” walnut during the Middle Ages, when English sailors carried and traded them throughout Europe and beyond. The term “English” applied to the Persian nut is a misnomer. The name “English walnut” refers to the English merchant marines whose ships transported the product for trade around the world.

Walnut groves existed around 2,000 B.C. in the Mesopotamian Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The ancient Greeks and Romans actively traded walnuts and incorporated them into their mythology, associating them with fertility. Walnuts are one of the oldest tree foods known to man, dating back to 7000 B.C. Records indicate Persian nuts were known during the reign of Tiberius.
Remains of this nut have also been unearthed in ancient Roman villas. In ancient Rome, walnuts were considered food for the gods and called “Jungians Regain” (origin of the English walnut’s approved Latin scientific name) in honor of Jupiter.

There are two major commercial species of walnuts; the English walnut, which originated in Persia, and the black walnut, which is native to the U.S. Virtually all walnuts sold commercially in the U.S. are of the English variety; although regional marketing campaigns are underway to promote black walnuts.
The first English walnuts were probably brought to California by Spanish Franciscan missionaries around 1770. Joseph Sexton planted the first commercial walnut orchard in California in 1867 near Goleta in Santa Barbara County. In the 1870s, California walnut agriculture took off with the establishment of large orchards in Southern California near Santa Barbara. Later, large-scale production moved north to California’s Central Valley. Walnut trees thrive in the hot, dry summers and mild winters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, which also boast deep rich soil ideal for walnut growing.

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    Andean Walnut (Juglans neotropica)

    Nogal en Fragen

    The Andean walnut is a slow-growing tree tall. It has grooved, red-brown bark and an oval-shaped canopy. It has large leaves (more than 1 foot long) that consist of pointed, serrated leaflets arranged in pairs. This tree is also known regionally as Columbian walnut, Ecuador walnut, Peruvian walnut. It is generally grown for nuts or for its highly prized wood, and it is an endangered species in its native range. It is rarely grown in the U.S.

    • Native Area: Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru
    • USDA Growing Zones: 10 to 11
    • Height: Up to 130 feet; more commonly, 50 to 65 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full to partial sun; cannot grow in shade
     

    Arizona Black Walnut (Juglans major)

    Juglans major (Arizona Walnut). Morton Arboretum acc. 614-47*1. 52 years old at this photo, grown from seed.

    In moist conditions, the tree features a single, stout trunk. In drier conditions, there are usually several slender trunks. The leaves are 8 to 14 inches long and pinnately compound (grouped in leaflets around a central stem). Regionally, this tree is sometimes known as New Mexico walnut, mountain walnut, or river walnut. This tree prefers moist soil, and in the dry territory that is its native range, the tree seeks out ravines and river beds.

    • Native Area: Mexico and Southwest U.S. (Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah)
    • USDA Growing Zones: 6 to 10
    • Height: Up to 50 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun to part shade
     

    Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Black walnut tree branches with green leaves and walnuts

    The walnuts from this tree are cultivated for their distinctive and desirable taste. These trees are also grown for their hard, attractive wood. Many cultivars of this tree have been developed for improved quality nuts or wood. The black walnut has sharply ridged gray-black bark that forms diamond shapes, and the trunks may be quite long before reaching the first branches. The tree crowns are usually dense and rounded. The leaves are huge, up to 24 inches long consisting of 13 to 23 lance-shaped leaflets. Autumn color is a fairly bland yellow. This tree is sometimes known as the American walnut or the eastern black walnut.

    • Native Area: Eastern U.S.
    • USDA Growing Zones: 4 to 9
    • Height: 50 to 120 feet
    • Full Exposure: Full sun
     

    Butternut (Juglans cenerea)

    Butternut tree

    The butternut is a deciduous tree growing up to 60 feet tall. It is a slow-growing species that rarely lives longer than 75 years. It is similar in appearance to the black walnut, but it is a smaller tree with less fissured bark, fewer leaflets per leaf, and smaller nuts that are more oval-shaped than round. Once a very common North American specimen, the butternut has become increasingly rare due to a spreading canker disease. In different regions, it may be known as oilnut, white walnut, or long walnut.

    • Native Area: Eastern North America
    • USDA Growing Zones: 3 to 7
    • Height: 40 to 60 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
     
     
     

    Brazilian Walnut (Juglans Australis)

    Walnut tree in a field

    J. australis is a spreading deciduous tree, up to 80 feet wide, which produces first quality lumber, with its trunk straight up. The immature and mature fruits of this tree are also consumed. The Brazilian walnut (also known as the nogal criolla, or tropical walnut) is a tropical tree that is rarely grown in North America, but is sometimes planted as an ornamental shade tree in tropical zones.

    • Native Area: Argentina and Bolivia
    • USDA Growing Zones: 10 to 11
    • Height: Up to 80 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
     

    California Black Walnut (Juglans californica)

    California Black Walnut in Puente Hills.

    The California black walnut can be either a large shrub with one to five main stems, or a small, single-trunked tree. The main trunk often forks close to the ground, making it appear that two trees have grown together. The California black walnut has deeply channeled thick bark that furrows with maturity. It has the familiar walnut leaves—pinnately compound with 11 to 19 lance-shaped leaflets. The nuts are small, hard, and difficult to remove. This plant may also be called the southern California black walnut.

    • Native Area: Southern California
    • USDA Growing Zones: 8 to 10
    • Height: 15 to 40 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
     

    English Walnut (Juglans regia)

    An English Walnut tree

    This tree is an Old World walnut tree that is called the English walnut, but it actually comes from China. This tree’s history reaches back to stories involving Alexander the Great when he first introduced this tree as Persian in origin. This is the walnut that provides more of the edible walnuts sold in stores. Smooth olive-brown bark on young trees gradually turns silvery gray and rough as the tree ages. The compound leaves are 10 to 16 inches long, clustered in 5 to 9 lance-shaped leaflets. The fruits fall in autumn, and the nuts are relatively thin-shelled with richly flavorful seeds inside. This tree is also known as the common walnut or Persian walnut. Many named cultivars are available.

    • Native Area: Europe and Asia
    • USDA Growing Zones: 5 to 9
    • Height: 40 to 60 feet; occasionally to 120 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun
     

    Northern California Black Walnut (Juglans hindsii)

    California Black Walnut in Puente Hills.

    The north California walnut, also called Hind’s black walnut, is a medium-sized tree with a short, bulky look, since the crown is often wider than the height of the tree. The trunk on mature trees can be 5 to 6 feet in diameter at the base. The leaves are about 1 foot long, with 13 to 21 leaflets with dentate (coarsely toothed) margins.

    Juglans hindsii has a controversial conservation status, and some consider it threatened by hybridization with orchard trees, urbanization, and habitat loss.1 Some authorities consider this plant a variation of the California walnut, giving it the name Juglans californica var. hindsii.

    • Native Area: California
    • USDA Growing Zones: 7 to 10
    • Height: 30 to 60 feet
    • Sun Exposure: Full sun

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